In Vitro Determination of Antioxidant activity, total phenolics, total flavonoids, anti-cholesterol of extracts Saffron (Crocus sativus)

Muhammad Ryan Radix Rahardhian


Background: In Indonesia, saffron (Crocus sativus) drinks are now the latest healthy lifestyle trend. Saffron is used as a natural antioxidant, where antioxidants are related to cholesterol inhibition. The antioxidant activity of saffron is closely related to the content of flavonoids and phenolic compounds. This study aimed to determine Saffron 50% ethanol extract's effect on antioxidant activity, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and anti-cholesterol. Methods: Inhibition of antioxidant activity with 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl DPPH, determining TPC using Folin-Ciocalteu and TFC reagent using AlCl3 reagent, and anti-cholesterol with Cholesterol Standard. Results: TFC 19.14 ± 0.9 mg QE / g, TPC 4.8 ± 0.9 mg GAE / g, antioxidant activity with extract IC 50 6939.02, Quercetin 9.57, Rutin 41.70, and decreased the greatest cholesterol occurred at a concentration of 400 ppm with a decrease of 13.22%. Conclusion: The 50% saffron ethanol extract can be an antioxidant and anti-cholesterol in vitro, but it needs further testing in vivo with the same extract.

Full Text:



World Health Organization, “Raised cholesterol,” 2008. (accessed Oct. 23, 2020).

P. M. Arsana, R. Rosandi, A. Manaf, A. Budhiarta, and H. Permana, “Pedoman Pengelolaan Dislipidemi di Indonesia 2019,” Pb. Perkeni, p. 9, 2019.

W. Widowati, T. Herlina, H. Ratnawati, T. Mozef, and V. Immanuel, “Potency Of Antioxidant, Anti-cholesterol And Platelet Antiaggregating Of Black Tea (Camellia Sinensis),” Bul. Littro, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 74–83, 2011.

D. Ingrid and L. Fathrah, “Activity Test of Suji Leaf Extract ( Dracaena angustifolia Roxb .) on in vitro cholesterol-lowering,” J. Kim. Sains dan Apl., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 54–58, 2018.

W. H. El-Tantawy and A. Temraz, “Natural products for controlling hyperlipidemia: review,” Arch. Physiol. Biochem., vol. 125, no. 2, pp. 128–135, 2019, DOI: 10.1080/13813455.2018.1441315.

N. Yunarto, N. Aini, I. S. Oktoberia, I. Sulistyowati, and A. A. Kurniatri, “Aktivitas Antioksidan serta Penghambatan HMG CoA dan Lipase dari Kombinasi Ekstrak Daun Binahong-Rimpang Temu Lawak,” J. Kefarmasian Indones., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 89–96, 2019, doi: 10.22435/jki.v9i2.1930.

S. Rahaiee, S. Moini, M. Hashemi, and S. A. Shojaosadati, “Evaluation of antioxidant activities of bioactive compounds and various extracts obtained from saffron (Crocus sativus L.): a review,” J. Food Sci. Technol., vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 1881–1888, 2015, doi: 10.1007/s13197-013-1238-x.

E. Karimi, E. Oskoueian, R. Hendra, and H. Z. E. Jaafar, “Evaluation of Crocus sativus L. stigma phenolic and flavonoid compounds and its antioxidant activity,” Molecules, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 6244–6256, 2010, doi: 10.3390/molecules15096244.

A. Chandrasekara and F. Shahidi, “Antioxidant phenolics of millet control lipid peroxidation in human LDL cholesterol and food systems,” JAOCS, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 275–285, 2012, doi: 10.1007/s11746-011-1918-5.

M. Mashmoul, A. Azlan, H. Khaza’Ai, B. N. M. Yusof, and S. M. Noor, “Saffron: A natural potent antioxidant as a promising anti-obesity drug,” Antioxidants, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 293–308, 2013, doi: 10.3390/antiox2040293.

F. Dehghan et al., “Saffron with resistance exercise improves diabetic parameters through the GLUT4/AMPK pathway in-vitro and in-vivo,” Sci. Rep., vol. 6, no. December 2015, pp. 1–12, 2016, doi: 10.1038/srep25139.

M. Kamalipour and S. Akhondzadeh, “Cardiovascular effects of saffron: An evidence-based,” J. Tehran Univ. Hear. Cent., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 59–61, 2011.

R. Suharsanti, N. Sugihartini, E. Lukitaningsih, and M. R. R. Rahardhian, “Effect of Different Solvent on Total Phenolic, Total Flavonoid, and Sun Protection Factor of Belimbing Wuluh (Averrhoa Bilimbi linn.) Fruits Fraction,” J. Glob. Pharma Technol., vol. 11, pp. 154–162, 2019.

M. R. R. Rahardhian, R. Suharsanti, N. Sugihartini, and E. Lukitaningsih, “In Vitro Assessment of Total Phenolic , Total Flavonoid and Sunscreen Activities of Crude Ethanolic Extract of Belimbing wuluh ( Averrhoa bilimbi ) Fruits and Leaves,” J. Glob. Pharma Technol., vol. 11, no. 04 (Suppl.), pp. 308–313, 2019.

C. C. Chang, M. H. Yang, H. M. Wen, and J. C. Chern, Estimation of Total Flavonoid Content in Propolis by Two Complementary Colorimetric Methods, vol. 10. 2002.

P. Molyneux, “The Use of the Stable Free Radical Diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) for Estimating Antioxidant Activity,” Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., vol. 26, no. December 2003, pp. 211–219, 2004, doi: 10.1287/isre.6.2.144.

A. N. Assimopoulou, Z. Sinakos, and V. P. Papageorgiou, “Radical scavenging activity of Crocus sativus L. extract and its bioactive constituents,” Phyther. Res., vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 997–1000, Nov. 2005, doi: 10.1002/ptr.1749.

J. A. Fernandez, “Anticancer properties of saffron , Crocus sativus Linn.,” Lead Mol. from Nat. Prod., pp. 313–330, 2006.

M. N. Afifah and A. N. Hasanah, “Saffron (Crocus sativus L): Kandungan dan Aktivitas Farmakologinya,” Maj. Farmasetika, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 116–123, Mar. 2020, doi: 10.24198/mfarmasetika.v5i3.26291.

J. T. Dipiro, G. C. Yee, L. M. Posey, S. T. Haines, T. D. Nolin, and V. Ellingrod, Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach. 11th Edition, vol. 11, no. 1. McGraw Hill., 2020.

P. Tiwari, B. Kumar, M. Kaur, G. Kaur, and H. Kaur, “Phytochemical screening and Extraction: A Review,” Int. Pharm. Sci., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 98–106, 2011, doi: 10.1002/hep.29375.

Hasim, S. Falah, and L. K. Dewi, “Effect of Boiled Cassava Leaves ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) on Total Phenolic, Flavonoid and its Antioxidant Activity,” Curr. Biochem., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 116–127, 2016, doi: 10.29244/1-12.

S. Gazeran, F. Tajalli, and A. Mohamadi Sani, “Effect of Ultrasonic Extraction on Qualitative Parameters of Saffron Edible Extract,” J. Essent. Oil-Bearing Plants, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 1286–1291, 2016, doi: 10.1080/0972060X.2015.1004126.

E. Karimi, E. Oskoueian, R. Hendra, and H. Z. E. Jaafar, “Evaluation of Crocus sativus L. Stigma Phenolic and Flavonoid Compounds and Its Antioxidant ActivityKarimi, E., Oskoueian, E., Hendra, R., & Jaafar, H. Z. E. (2010). Evaluation of Crocus sativus L. Stigma Phenolic and Flavonoid Compounds and Its Antioxida,” Molecules, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 6244–6256, Sep. 2010, doi: 10.3390/molecules15096244.

S. Soradech, “Radical scavenging, antioxidant and melanogenesis stimulating activities of diiferent species of rice (Oryza sativa L.) extracts,” Thai J. Pharm. Sci., vol. 40, no. 0, Jun. 2016.

S. B. Kedare and R. P. Singh, “Genesis and development of DPPH method of antioxidant assay.,” J. Food Sci. Technol., vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 412–22, Aug. 2011, doi: 10.1007/s13197-011-0251-1.

R. K. Murray, D. A. Bender, K. M. Botham, P. J. Kennelly, V. W. Rodwell, and P. A. Weil, Harper’s biochemistry 24th edition, vol. 28, no. 1. 2009.

H. Makhlouf, M. Saksouk, J. Habib, and R. Chahine, “Determination of antioxidant activity of saffron taken from the flower of Crocus sativus grown in Lebanon,” African J. Biotechnol., vol. 10, no. 41, pp. 8093–8100, 2011, doi: 10.5897/ajb11.406.

S. M. B. Asdaq and M. N. Inamdar, “Potential of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its Constituent, Crocin, as Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant in Rats,” Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., vol. 162, no. 2, pp. 358–372, 2010, doi: 10.1007/s12010-009-8740-7.

K. and H. Schunack, W., Mayer, Senyawa Obat, Buku Pelajaran Kimia Farmasi. Edisi kedua. (diterjemahkan oleh Joke R. Wattimena dan Sriwoelan Soebito). GMU-Press, Yogyakarta, 1990.

J. Rahmani et al., “The effect of saffron on weight and lipid profile: A systematic review, meta-analysis, and dose–response of randomized clinical trials,” Phyther. Res., vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 2244–2255, 2019, doi: 10.1002/ptr.6420.

R. Amarowicz, “Editorial Natural phenolic compounds protect LDL against oxidation,” Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Techno, pp. 677–679, 2016, doi: 10.1002/ejlt.201600077.

S. Salvamani, B. Gunasekaran, N. A. Shaharuddin, S. A. Ahmad, and M. Y. Shukor, “Antiartherosclerotic Effects of Plant Flavonoids,” Biomed Res. Int., pp. 1–11, 2014, doi: 10.1155/2014/480258.

C. L. Millar, Q. Duclos, and C. N. Blesso, “Effects of Dietary Flavonoids on Reverse Cholesterol Transport , HDL Metabolism , and HDL Function,” Am. Soc. Nutr. Adv Nutr, no. 8, pp. 226–239, 2017, doi: 10.3945/an.116.014050.226.

A. N. A. L. B. Zeni et al., “Evaluation of phenolic compounds and lipid-lowering effect of Morus nigra leaves extract,” An. Acad. Bras. Cienc., vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 2805–2815, 2017, doi: 10.1590/0001-3765201720160660.


  • There are currently no refbacks.